Sim and Technology

TOPICS :   Technology
Pagadala Vijay Kumar
Pagadala Vijay Kumar
Nov 18 , 2018 18 min read 455 Views Likes 2 Comments
Sim and Technology

Mobile — Cell phone has become a part of our daily life. It’s possessed by everyone irrespective of their necessity and affordability. Nowadays, the mobile with the latest Android versions is enhancing an individual’s social status. The online banking, social media and other group’s activities of the new applications on the mobile are binding the people to become inactive. Any product or appliance if used as per the need and requirement, appliances, equipment and technology shall be worthwhile and should last longer. To get a clear picture and to update the knowledge, here are a few basics of the SIM and it’s necessary to understand the chip and its uses for a better and secured utilization.

The first SIM card was designed in 1991 by Munich smart card maker, Giesecke and Devrient developed for Finnish wireless network operator Radiolinja.

A subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM) is an integrated circuit that securely stores the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) and the related key’s used to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile telephony devices, such as mobile phones and computers. The SIM stores the IMSI and used to identify and authenticate the user of the mobile phone. The SIM card allows users to change mobile phones just by removing the SIM card from one mobile and inserting it into another mobile or into any broadband telephony device. If a SIM is damaged one can get the other, new one with the same mobile number. It’s called SIM replacement or SIM swap.  Now, it’s too easy to get a new number and SIM and so, are the new techniques of mobile fraudulent practices.

The SIM cards are identified by the individual operator’s network by a unique International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Network operators connect mobile phone calls and communicate with their market SIM cards using their IMSIs. The format usually is the first three digits represent the Mobile country code - MCC. The next two or three digits represent the Mobile network code - MNC. (Three-digit MNC codes allowed by E.212 but are mainly used in the United States and Canada). The next digits represent the Mobile Subscriber Identification Number. There are 10 digits, but would be fewer in the case of a 3-digit MNC or if any national regulation indicates that the total length of the IMSI should be less than 15 digits.

And similarly, International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI) uses only to identify and stop the unauthorized usage of mobile service. One can dial *#06# and check the number of the device. A SIM is embedded as a removable SIM card, which can be transferred between different mobile devices. SIM cards first made were the size of a credit card (85.60mm × 53.98mm × 0.76mm). The development of physically smaller mobile devices prompted the development of a smaller SIM card, such as Micro and Nano. All SIM cards have the same thickness, but their length and width are further reduced to fit the latest handsets.

A SIM card contains a unique serial number (ICCID), international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI), security authentication and ciphering information, temporary information related to the local network. A list of the services the user has access to and two passwords: a Personal Identification Number (PIN) for ordinary use and a Personal Unblocking Code (PUK) for PIN unlocking that secures the user’s data. The cards can be locked and unlocked by the personal identification number (PIN). If the mobile’s stolen, it can’t be used or get any information without the PIN.

These cards hold the personal information of the account as such phone number, address book, text messages, images and the data. SIM cards are convenient and popular with many users and play a key role in developing a mobile technology.

SIMs in mobile phones usually operates on the GSM platform—Global System for Mobile Communications network.

The SIM Cards are of four 4 Types - H1, H2, H3 and H4.

H1 - Basic and minimal use of Network

H2 - Enhanced than the H1

H3 - Further improvised and with the latest technology

H4 - This SIM has generally opted for Defence purpose.

Basically, H4 SIM used by big corporations and defence as this SIM utilizes a large bandwidth of the network and usually not preferred. To know what type of SIM’s being used one can check the reverse of the card. It displays the type of SIM and the number.

Technologies:

2G was first introduced in 1992, a second-generation of cellular telephone technology and the first to use digital encryption of conversations. 2G networks were the first to offer data services and SMS text messaging, but their data transfer rates were lower than those of their successors

3G networks succeed 2G offering faster data transfer and the first to enable video calls. The 3G’s suitable with the smartphones, which require a constant high-speed internet connection for many of their applications. It has the compatibility and can be accessed through USB wireless modems at home and the offices.

4G is the fourth generation of mobile phone communications standards. It is a successor of the 3G and provides ultra-broadband internet access for mobile devices. The 4G and the forthcoming 5G networks are expensive to the telecom service providers. Hence, a few companies are in a dilemma working out the huge expenditure. The 5G trials are in progress by a few companies and may expect the services shortly, but with a higher tariff.

Hazards:

Some surveys say that around 40-50% of the environmental impact of a mobile phone occurs during the manufacturing of the printed wiring boards and integrated circuits. An average user replaces the mobile phone every 11 to 18 months. The discarded phones then contribute to electronic waste/junk. Some countries introduced a mobile phone recycling scheme and developing a Fairphone which is free of mineral and toxic combination and required standards.

The enormous increase in mobile usage throughout the world and the effect of mobile phone radiation on human health and other inhabitants is the major issue now. Every mobile phone emits electromagnetic radiations in the range of microwave and is assumed to be harmful. Still, researchers are on search as to what and how the control the damage and there goes the bias and debates. Meanwhile, let’s make sure not to use mobiles for longer durations keeping in mind about harmful radiation.

PVK36.


Comments2